Automobile History

AUTOMOBILE CLASSIFICATIONS

1. On the basis of use

  •  Electrical cycle
  • Bikes, scooters
  • Cars, jeeps
  • Trucks and buses

2. On the basis of capacity

  •  M.V. (Heavy motor vehicle) for e.g. Trucks and buses
  • M.V. (Light motor vehicle) for e.g. Cars and jeeps and bikes

3. On the basis of model and make

  •  Bajaj, Hero, Honda, Royal Enfiled etc.
  • Ambassador, Maruti 800, i20, etc.
  • Tata, Ford, Leyland, G.M etc.

4. On the basis of fuel used

  • Petrol vehicle, e.g., all bikes and some models of cars
  • Diesel vehicle, e.g., buses, trucks, cars (diesel models)
  • Hybrid vehicle, e.g., Toyota Prius 
  • Electric vehicle, e.g., Reva

5. On the basis of Body style

  • Closed cars such as saloons, coupe cars etc.
  • Open cars such as sports car, Convertible cars etc.
  • Luxury cars

6. On the basis of wheel

  • Two wheelers- bikes, scooters
  • Three wheelers- Auto rickshaws
  • Four wheelers- cars
  • Six wheelers- trucks and few buses

7. On the basis of Drive

 7.1. Based on sitting position
  • Left hand drive e.g., all American vehicles
  • Right hand drive e.g., all Indian vehicles
7.2. Based on driving axles
  • Front wheel drive: Maruti cars, Volkswagen cars
  • Rear wheel drive: Premier, ambassador
  • All wheel drive: jeeps

8. On the basis of Transmission

  • Conventional: in which simple gear box is used
  • Semi automatic having two pedal transmissions using manual operation of the standard gear box, with automatic clutch control.
  • Fully-automatic: operates fully automatic transmission. 

 

 

CARS BODY STYLES

Closed cars

Saloon or Sedan

Sedan has 2 or 4 doors, a single compartment with 1 row or 2 rows of seats, one at the front and the other at the rear. It has Separate luggage section at rear or at front.

Audi A6

Hatchback

Car body configuration with a door at the back is called Hatch back. It is mainly come in three or five doors.

Volkswagen Polo

Coupe

There is only one row of sears for two persons. Only doors are provided. An ordinary ‘saloon’ with roof-line at decreased height is also called coupe sometimes.

Limousine  

In the limousine, driving compartment is separated from the rear compartment by a sliding glass division.

Limousine

SUV

Sport Utility Vehicle it is similar to Station Wagon or estate car. It has huge space for passenger and for luggage. For example BMW X1, X3, and Audi Q3 etc.

Land Rover Range Rover Sport - Rs. 1.10 - 1.66 crores

MUV

MUV has bigger chassis dimensions, more seating capacity, with extra luggage space. MUV is used for multipurpose like passenger carrying with more luggages at a time. For ex. Mahindra Bolero and Tata sumo.

Tata Sumo Gold - Rs. 5.87 - 7.56 lakhs

LUV

Life Utility Vehicle it is same as SUV, for example Maruti Suzuki Ertiga.

Maruti Suzuki Ertiga -

Open cars

Sports

It has two doors or less, is provided with a collapsible hood, a fold- flat windscreen and removable side-screens.

Audi R8 - Rs. 1.65 - 2.24 lakhs

Convertible

In this type of cars, the roof of the cars can be folded completely. The car either may be open or enclosed.

Aston Martin DB9 - Rs. 2.90 - 3.00 crores

Special styles

Estate car

A saloon car with the passenger roof extended right up to the rear side end. The Rear doors for loading with rear seats are usually collapsible.

Estate car

Station wagon  

Wood panelled body in earlier days but now only with a resembling look over the steel structure.

Station wagon

 

 

TRANSPORT VEHICLES

Van 

These are light transport vehicle. There are seats at the front and the luggage space at the rear. The side doors are usually of sliding type. The rear side of van is used for loading or unloading, it having an angular opening door.

Maruti Suzuki Omni

Truck 

These are heavy transport vehicle. It generally used for transportation of goods. The twin wheels are fitted on the non-steered axles. Depending upon the load capacity, there are two or more axles.

Truck

Agricultural vehicle 

These vehicle mostly used for agricultural purpose, it consist of tractor and a semi trailer. The tractor provides the motive power while the trailer carries the goods. The two units are connected together by means of a fifth-wheel coupling. This type of vehicle has smaller turning circle than the rigid truck.

Agricultural vehicle

Bus 

Usually it have two doors, one at rear and one at front. These are used for carrying large number of people over short distances often in a dense traffic. Sometimes, the buses have two floors, that kind of buses are called double-decker buses.

bus

Coach

These are used for transporting passenger over long distances and are therefore provided with luxurious interior with comfortable, adjustable seats and amenities like video.

Coach

 

DIFFERENT COMPONENTS IN AUTOMOBILE

1. Structure

It is the main part of an automobile, on which the automobile bodies get shape and size.

  • Frame
  • Chassis

2. Suspension system

Suspension is used to prevent the vehicle from the shocks other road defects. It maintained the stability of the vehicle.

  • Axles
  • Wheels

3. Power plant (engine)

The power plant is supply the power to the whole vehicle to perform different function.

  • IC engines
  • SI engines
  • CI engines

4. The transmission system

The transmission system consists of a clutch, a gear box, crown wheel, universal joints and differential:

5. Control system

It helps to maintain the stability and control on the vehicle is called control system.

  • Steering system
  • Brakes
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