This is a combination of mechanical linkage which helps to control the direction of motion of the vehicle.

Steering system has 3 main parts: The one end of steering linkage connected to the steering gear box, and steering box connected to the steering wheel. The other end connected to the link road arm which is already connected to the front axle of the vehicle

This system which is used in bulldozers and tanks that is usually called as differential steering.  That vehicle required moving at different speeds or even in opposite direction, which is completed by the differential steering.


Steering wheel

Steering column

Steering box

Drop arm

(Pitman arm)

Drag link

(Link rod)

Link rod arm

Ball joint

Steering arm

King pin

Front axle mechanism


Steering gear 

It converts the turning motion of the steering wheel into the to and fro motion of the link rod of the steering linkage. It also provides the necessary leverage so that the driver is able to steer the vehicle without fatigue.

There are two basic types of steering boxes on is rack & pinion gearing and other one is worn gearing. Both of the box makes turning of steering wheel is much easier. A rack & pinion steering system has a steering wheel, a main shaft, universal joints and an intermediate shaft. The pinion is meshed with the teeth of the rack, so pinion rotation moves the rack from side to side. In worn gearing system, it provides a gear reduction and 90 degree change in the direction. Worn gearing systems have more parts in comparison of rack & pinion system that’s why it is mostly used in the heavier vehicles.

Steering ratio 

It is the ratio of the angle turned by the steering wheel to the corresponding turning angles of the stub axle. The steering ratios for cars are 12:1 and 35:1 for the heavy vehicle.



There are lots of types of steering present in market, but here we discuss about some famous new technology base steering. Which are widely used in today’s automobile market.


It is also known as the mechanical steering. In this system it totally works manually. Steering wheel rotates by the driver and the mechanism which is connected together is work at that time to rotate the vehicle. This type of steering wheel required lots of mechanical effort, and it is hard to control.



It is also known as power assisted steering (PAS) or steering assist system. Power has Hydraulic or electric actuators for controlling the energy of the steering mechanism. Its makes steer much easier for the driver. The assistance is supplied as soon as the engine is started. When parking or manoeuvring your car, it makes life perceptible easier. They consists of a pump which produces the hydraulic pressure and a integral type gear box which clutches the force actuating on to the steering system, regulates the pressure and changes that into mechanical movement. It has greatly reduces the driver’s fatigue in turning the steering especially at low vehicle speed and during parking.

Direct Adaptive Steering and Electro-Hydraulic power steering system

They are also a type of power steering. Direct Adaptive Steering transmits the driver rotate the steering wheel, moving the tires through convert the driver’s steering into electronic signals and independently controlling the angle of the tires and the steering force. The technology provides a sense of strong propulsion on different types of road surfaces, and the feeling like you are directly touching the road.

Some other advance systems

1. Variable ratio rack and pinion steering system  

It is seen that when driving in straight ahead position, slight movement of the steering wheel would result in excessive correction of response of the steering gear is very fast.

2. Electric power steering

In it both pinion-driver and concentric rack driven electrical power systems. It has no problem of leakage of fluid and steering assistance available even when the engine is not running.

3. Speed sensitive steering

This type of system developed vary the effort required to steer the wheels as a function of vehicle speed increasing vehicle safety and road feel.

4. Four wheel steering

The steering system under development includes basic mechanical systems, active rear toe control and fully active electronic control systems.

5. Active four wheel steering  

In this type of steering system, all four wheels turn at the same time when the steering wheel steers by the driver. The rear wheels are steered by the help of computer and actuators.

Steering adjustment 

Now a day’s you can adjust your steering wheel as per your comfort like seat.

Tilt and Telescopic steering 

This system helps you to adjust the steering wheel before driving as per our comfort level. In the tilt steering, we can adjust steering wheel upward and downward at required angle.

Telescopic steering is basically the distance between the steering wheel and the dashboard, can be adjusted like a telescope. It can be move the steering wheel forward and backward.

Tilt and Telescopic steering